Actived Grain Carbon
Generally, the collection of water-soluble substances within a solid phase is called the adsorption process. The adsorption process is carried out by granular or powdered activated carbon. Activated carbon can also be used to separate certain gases from the air or any other gas. One of the popular adsorbents is granular activated carbon and powder. Activated carbon is commonly used to remove specific pollutants. This process is usually used after the completion of conventional purification processes such as biological processes and final settling, but is sometimes applicable simultaneously with the biological process.
Activated carbon can be made from some organic matter such as coconut skin. Many Iranian and foreign researchers have also been working on the production of activated carbon from many different wastes and materials. For example, leaves of trees, sawdust, solid waste, fruit skin, dung, etc. To produce activated carbon, the raw material is heated to a degree of fusion (above 550 ° C). Under these circumstances, we must limit the amount of oxygen to oxidize only a fraction of the carbon. In these conditions, some of the raw material is oxidized and forms a very porous structure.
This type of activated carbon is trapped in the column and used to remove pollutants by passing water. Due to the shape of the active carbon fixed bed column, it is possible to enter and build clogged solids in the activated carbon column, so settling and filtration processes should be predicted with the aid of sand filters. Provisions must also be made to retract and prevent clogging of the activated carbon column. Activated carbon columns can be used independently, in parallel or sequentially with a fixed bed clamp having a high pressure drop, so the researchers use removable bedding for this problem.
In these substrates the amount of granular activated carbon is lower than the fixed substrate so the granules can move. In some cases, granule particles will move heavily to move the granules by injecting air into the column. In such columns the bed clogging is much less and sometimes there is no problem called bed clogging. In this type of column, saturated activated carbon is exited from the column and fresh carbon is injected into it.